Skip to content

William R. Emmons: Publications and Papers

The Bigger They Are, The Harder They Fall: The Decline of the White Working Class
with Ana Hernández Kent and Lowell R. Ricketts
The Demographics of Wealth: How Education, Race and Birth Year Shape Financial Outcomes, Essay No. 3, September 2018.

The College Boost: Why Are Wealth Returns from a Degree Falling?
with Ana Hernández Kent and Lowell R. Ricketts
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, July 19, 2018.

The College Boost: Is the Return on a Degree Fading?
with Ana Hernández Kent and Lowell R. Ricketts
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, July 17, 2018.

The College Boost: Grads Still Outearn Nongrads
with Ana Hernández Kent and Lowell R. Ricketts
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, July 16, 2018.

National Homeownership Rates in 2005: A Powerful Negative Predictor of Post-Crisis Recovery
Housing Market Perspectives, Issue 9, 2018.

A Lost Generation? Long-Lasting Wealth Impacts of the Great Recession on Young Families
with Lowell R. Ricketts and Ana Hernández Kent
The Demographics of Wealth: How Education, Race and Birth Year Shape Financial Outcomes, Essay No. 2, May 2018.

The Financial Returns from College across Generations: Large but Unequal 
with Lowell R. Ricketts and Ana Hernández Kent
The Demographics of Wealth: How Education, Race and Birth Year Shape Financial Outcomes, Essay No. 1, February 2018.

Older Workers Account for All Net Job Growth Since 2000
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, Jan. 15, 2018.

Household Debt at the Tipping Point: When and Why Does Household Borrowing Hurt the Economy?
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Center for Household Financial Stability Working Paper, November 2017.

How Has the Economy Performed around Fed Chair Transitions?
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, Nov. 6, 2017.

Wealth Inequality Grows within Races and Ethnicities 
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, Oct. 2, 2017.

Wealth Gaps with White Families Narrow, but Remain Large 
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, Sept. 29, 2017.

Household Wealth is at a Post-WWII High: Should We Celebrate or Worry?
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 17, 2017.

An Even Wider Generational Wealth Gap?
with Lowell R. Ricketts
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, Aug. 17, 2017.

Homeownership and the Racial Wealth Divide
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Housing Market Perspectives, Issue 5, 2017.

The Link between Family Structure and Wealth Is Weaker Than You Might Think
with Lowell R. Ricketts
The St. Louis Fed On the Economy blog, May 9, 2017.

California Homeownership in 2030 and Beyond: Demographic Change and the “Lost Generations” of California Homeowners
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Journal of Case Study Research: A Publication of the Center for California Real Estate, Volume II, Issue I, Spring 2017.

Could Housing Markets Face Another "Taper Tantrum" Moment?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Housing Market Perspectives, Issue 4, March 2017.

College Is Not Enough: Higher Education Does Not Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Wealth Gaps
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, February 2017.

College Inadvertently Increases Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Income and Wealth 
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 16, 2017.

The Demographics of Loan Delinquency: Tipping Points or Tip of the Iceberg?
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Center for Household Financial Stability Working Paper, Oct. 18, 2016.

Unequal Degrees of Affluence: Racial and Ethnic Wealth Differences across Education Levels
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The Regional Economist, October 2016

Recent Rise in Housing Costs Belies Long-Term Affordability
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Housing Market Perspectives, Issue 2, September 2016.

Choosing to Fail or Lack of Choice? The Demographics of Loan Delinquency
with Lowell R. Ricketts and Tasso Pettigrew 
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 15, 2016.

If Housing Markets Are Recovering, Why Is the Homeownership Rate Still Falling?
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Housing Market Perspectives, Issue 1, March 2016.

The Importance of Wealth is Growing 
with Lowell R. Ricketts
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 13, 2015.

Why Didn't Higher Education Protect Hispanic and Black Wealth?
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 12, 2015.

Age, Birth Year and Wealth
with Bryan J. Noeth, introduction co-authored by Ray Boshara
The Demographics of Wealth: How Age, Education and Race Separate Thrivers from Strugglers in Today’s Economy, Essay No. 3, July 15, 2015.

Education and Wealth
with Bryan J. Noeth, introduction co-authored by Ray Boshara
The Demographics of Wealth: How Age, Education and Race Separate Thrivers from Strugglers in Today's Economy, Essay No. 2, May 5, 2015.

The Middle Class May Be Under More Pressure Than You Think
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 11, 2015.

Race, Ethnicity and Wealth 
with Bryan J. Noeth, introduction co-authored by Ray Boshara
The Demographics of Wealth: How Age, Education and Race Separate Thrivers from Strugglers in Today’s Economy, Essay No. 1, Feb. 26, 2015.

Five Simple Questions That Reveal Your Financial Health and Wealth
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 10, 2014.

The Great Recession Casts a Long Shadow on Family Finances 
with Ray Boshara and Bryan J. Noeth
St. Louis Fed On the Economy, Sept. 9, 2014.

Despite Aggressive Deleveraging, Generation X Remains 'Generation Debt' 
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 9, 2014.

Hispanic Population's Share of Wealth Likely to Increase by 2025
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 8, 2014.

The Economic and Financial Status of Older Americans: Trends and Prospects
with Bryan J. Noeth
Center for Household Financial Stability Working Paper, revised April 18, 2014.
view media coverage of this paper »

Asset Diversification and Low Debt Are the Keys to Building and Maintaining Wealth 
with Ray Boshara
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia Cascade, No. 84, Winter 2014.

Housing Crash Continues to Overshadow Young Families' Balance Sheets
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 7, 2014.

Wealth Recovery Still Not Complete, Remains Uneven Across Families and Locations
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 6, 2013.

Housing Rebound Broadens the Wealth Recovery But Much More is Needed
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 5, 2013.

Economic Vulnerability and Financial Fragility 
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, September/October 2013.

Still Digging Out: Real Net Worth per Household Has Rebounded 63 Percent Since Hitting Bottom in Early 2009
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 4, 2013.

After the Fall: Rebuilding Family Balance Sheets, Rebuilding the Economy 
with Ray Boshara
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Annual Report 2012.
PDF version.

The Nation's Wealth Recovery Since 2009 Conceals Vastly Different Balance-Sheet Realities among America's Families
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis In the Balance, Issue 3, 2013.

Why Did Young Families Lose So Much Wealth During the Crisis? The Role of Homeownership 
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, January/February 2013.

Mortgage Borrowing: The Boom and Bust"
with Bryan J. Noeth
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The Regional Economist, January 2013.

Why Did Young Households Lose so Much Wealth During the Crash? The Role of Homeownership 
with Bryan J. Noeth
you Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Bridges, Fall 2012.

Household Financial Stability: Who Suffered the Most from the Crisis? 
with Bryan J. Noeth, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The Regional Economist, July 2012.

Don't Expect Consumer Spending to Be the Engine of Growth It Once Was
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The Regional Economist, January 2012.

The Foreclosure Crisis in 2008: Predatory Lending or Household Overreaching?
with Kathy Fogel, Wayne Y. Lee, Deena Rorie, Liping Ma and Timothy J. Yeager
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis The Regional Economist, July 2011.