The FOMC Voting Rotation, Explained
The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) is the main monetary policymaking body of the Federal Reserve. It includes both rotating and permanent voting seats, for a total of 12. So, who votes at FOMC meetings, and how does the voting rotation work?
4 Rotating Votes
Each year, four FOMC votes rotate among 11 Federal Reserve bank presidents. Districts are in groups that rotate in either a three- or two-year cycle. Tap a district to learn more.
8 Permanent Votes
The permanent FOMC voters are the New York Fed president and the Board of Governors. Tap an icon to learn more.
Who votes when?
A Seat at the Table
The Federal Reserve System is decentralized by design, with 12 Federal Reserve banks rooted in communities across America. This is so the people making decisions about monetary policy hear diverse perspectives. Although most bank presidents vote on a rotating cycle, all have a seat at the table during FOMC meetings—and they bring the voice of Main Street to the table, too.
Before FOMC meetings, bank presidents assess real-time, on-the-ground economic information. During meetings, they participate in discussions and provide their views on appropriate policy.
1A: Boston — The Boston Fed serves the First District, which includes Connecticut (excluding Fairfield County), Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont.
2B: New York — The New York Fed serves the Second District, which includes New York state, northern New Jersey, Fairfield County, Conn., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
3C: Philadelphia — The Philadelphia Fed serves the Third District, which includes Delaware, southern New Jersey, and eastern and central Pennsylvania.
4D: Cleveland — The Cleveland Fed serves the Fourth District, which includes Ohio, western Pennsylvania, eastern Kentucky and the northern panhandle of West Virginia.
5E: Richmond — The Richmond Fed serves the Fifth District, which includes Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, the District of Columbia and most of West Virginia.
6F: Atlanta— The Atlanta Fed serves the Sixth District, which includes Alabama, Florida and Georgia, and portions of Louisiana, Mississippi and Tennessee.
7G: Chicago — The Chicago Fed serves the Seventh District, which includes Iowa and most of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin.
8H: St. Louis — The St. Louis Fed serves the Eighth District, which includes Arkansas, eastern Missouri, southern Indiana, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, western Tennessee and northern Mississippi.
9I: Minneapolis — The Minneapolis Fed serves the Ninth District, which includes Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
10J: Kansas City — The Kansas City Fed serves the Tenth District, which includes Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Wyoming, northern New Mexico and western Missouri.
11K: Dallas — The Dallas Fed serves the Eleventh District, which includes Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico.
12L: San Francisco — The San Francisco Fed serves the Twelfth District, which includes Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah and Washington, as well as Guam, American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands.
This Excel file lists the FOMC voting rotation by year, 2021-2050.
This blog explains everyday economics, consumer topics and the Fed. It also spotlights the people and programs that make the St. Louis Fed central to America’s economy. Views expressed are not necessarily those of the St. Louis Fed or Federal Reserve System.