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Veronique de Rugy

Veronique de Rugy considers herself a generalist, which has helped her as a senior research fellow and as a syndicated columnist.

gold bars stacked on top of bills

After the early 1920s, the relationship between gold reserves and trade flows was tenuous at best as the international payments system experienced heightened uncertainty and significant change.

Black businessman signs a financial document.

The number of Black-owned banks dropped after the Great Recession, but growing calls for racial equity could help the survivors better serve their communities.

We believe the Federal Reserve most effectively serves the public by building a more diverse and inclusive economy.

Interactive charts feature key U.S. economic indicators that update automatically.

From St. Louis Fed President Jim Bullard

Second Quarter 2021

How far along is the U.S. labor market recovery? St. Louis Fed President James Bullard discusses various measures to assess the state of the labor market.

FRED® Economic Snapshot

Who We Are

by Design

The Federal Reserve is a central bank system that includes the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., and 12 independent regional Reserve banks.

This decentralized structure ensures that the economic conditions of all areas of the country are taken into account in the making of monetary policy.

Learn more about the importance of the Fed’s regional structure.


The Federal Reserve promotes a healthy economy and financial stability by:

  • Pursuing maximum employment, stable prices and moderate long-term interest rates
  • Ensuring safety and soundness of the nation's banks and financial system and protecting consumer credit rights
  • Maintaining stability of the financial system and containing systemic risk
  • Providing services to depository institutions, the U.S. government and foreign official institutions

Learn more about what we do.


The St. Louis Fed is overseen by a board of nine independent directors who are familiar with economic and credit conditions in the Eighth District.

The Bank's president, first vice president and a team of officers manage the Bank's day-to-day operations. The Management Committee is the central policymaking body of the Bank.

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