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Policy Insights

Expanding Affordable Housing Options: An Overview of Duty to Serve — Duty to Serve (DTS), a component of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, requires Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to facilitate a secondary mortgage market in three underserved markets – manufactured housing, affordable housing preservation and rural housing. The goal of the program is to provide more homeownership and rental housing options for households with very low, low and moderate income. This Policy Insight provides an overview of the program, which began implementation in January 2018. This Policy Insight is the first in a two-part series on the DTS program. The subsequent Policy Insight will focus on the specific activities that Fannie and Freddie will engage in to facilitate a secondary mortgage market in the three aforementioned markets.


The State Small Business Credit Initiative  — This policy insight examines how the U.S. as a whole and how the states that comprise the Federal Reserve’s Eighth District—Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri and Tennessee—met the financing needs of small businesses located in low- and moderate-income and rural areas. Additionally, this policy insight will focus on the important role community development financial institutions played in the SSBCI program.