The Fed can use four tools to achieve its monetary policy goals: the discount rate, reserve requirements, open market operations, and interest on reserves. All four affect the amount of funds in the banking system.
• The discount rate is the interest rate Reserve Banks charge commercial banks for short-term loans. Federal Reserve lending at the discount rate complements open market operations in achieving the target federal funds rate and serves as a backup source of liquidity for commercial banks. Lowering the discount rate is expansionary because the discount rate influences other interest rates. Lower rates encourage lending and spending by consumers and businesses. Likewise, raising the discount rate is contractionary because the discount rate influences other interest rates. Higher rates discourage lending and spending by consumers and businesses. Discount rate changes are made by Reserve Banks and the Board of Governors.
• Reserve requirements are the portions of deposits that banks must hold in cash, either in their vaults or on deposit at a Reserve Bank. A decrease in reserve requirements is expansionary because it increases the funds available in the banking system to lend to consumers and businesses. An increase in reserve requirements is contractionary because it reduces the funds available in the banking system to lend to consumers and businesses. The Board of Governors has sole authority over changes to reserve requirements. The Fed rarely changes reserve requirements.
• Open market operations, the buying and selling of U.S. government securities, has been a reliable tool. As we learned earlier, this tool is directed by the FOMC and carried out by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
• Interest on Reserves is the newest and most frequently used tool given to the Fed by Congress after the Financial Crisis of 2007-2009. Interest on reserves is paid on excess reserves held at Reserve Banks. Remember that the Fed requires banks to hold a percentage of their deposits on reserve. In addition to these reserves banks often hold extra funds on reserve. The current policy of paying interest on reserves allows the Fed to use interest as a monetary policy tool to influence bank lending. For example, if the FOMC wanted to create a greater incentive for banks to lend their excess reserves, it could lower the interest rate it pays on excess reserves. Banks are more likely to lend money rather than hold it in reserve (so they can make more money) creating expansionary policy. In turn, if the FOMC wanted to create an incentive for banks to hold more excess reserves and decrease lending, the FOMC could increase the interest rate paid on reserves, which is contractionary policy.
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