The Real State of Family Wealth: Quarterly Trends in Average Wealth and Demographic Wealth Inequality

By Ana Hernández Kent, Senior Researcher, Institute for Economic Equity; and Lowell R. Ricketts, Data Scientist, Institute for Economic Equity

The Institute for Economic EquityThe Real State of Family Wealth was introduced by the Center for Household Financial Stability, which became the Institute for Economic Equity in 2021. presents average real (i.e., inflation-adjusted) wealth for various demographic groups using the Federal Reserve Board’s Distributional Financial Accounts (DFAs).

Our team documents quarterly trends in average U.S. family wealth and wealth inequality from 1989 onward. The Real State of Family Wealth supplements our other research (e.g., the state of wealth inequality), which generally uses median wealth instead of average wealth—producing different estimates of racial, generational and educational wealth gaps. (See the note on data sources below.) Because of how wealth is distributed, average wealth estimates are much higher than median wealth estimates and are therefore not representative of a typical family’s experience.

Key Takeaways from First Quarter 2022 (through March 31):

  • On average, Black and Hispanic families owned about 24 cents and 21 cents, respectively, per $1 of white family wealth. These substantial gaps remain largely unchanged despite fluctuations from 1989 to 2022.
  • The average millennial family has narrowed early wealth gaps with GenXers at similar ages. Recently, average wealth for families of all ages has been greater than for same-age families in the past, though this is especially true for middle-age and older families.
  • The average family headed by a four-year college graduate has become much wealthier over the past several decades than the average family headed by someone with less education. In particular, those with less than a high school diploma struggled to accumulate wealth, on average.
  • On average, real family wealth was at or near all-time highs for white, Black and Hispanic families, as well as for families with a bachelor's degree, some college, or a high school diploma. In contrast, wealth holdings of families without a high school diploma remain well below historic levels.
  • The data provide a timely look at how wealth has been affected during the COVID-19 recession and ensuing months. Average wealth fell for most groups in the first quarter of 2020, but many of those losses reversed in the second quarter, reflecting the volatility in the value of financial assets seen early in the pandemic. Average wealth levels surged for almost all groups during the pandemic recovery and through 2021. However, the first quarter of 2022 has brought about a slight weakening for many groups.
  • These averages are sensitive to families at the top of the wealth distribution. Therefore, the experience of asset-poor American families may be obscured in these data.

The DFAs provided by the Board give quarterly estimates of nominal, aggregate U.S. household wealth. We make two important adjustments:

  • We adjust the DFA estimates for inflation using the consumer price index, yielding household wealth values in real terms. This adjusts for changes in the purchasing power of a dollar over time.
  • We also adjust for household population. This allows us to account for changing group sizes and to express wealth in terms of the average family’s household finances.

The result is average real household wealth values, available on a quarterly basis.

The authors would like to thank Ray Boshara and William R. Emmons for previous contributions to earlier versions of this work.

1 The Real State of Family Wealth was introduced by the Center for Household Financial Stability, which became the Institute for Economic Equity in 2021.

Visualizing Wealth

Racial and Ethnic Household Wealth Trends and Wealth Inequality

Generational and Age Household Wealth Trends and Wealth Inequality

Educational Household Wealth Trends and Wealth Inequality

We invite you to stay informed about quarterly updates to these figures by bookmarking this page, The Real State of Family Wealth, and signing up for updates.

A Note on Data Sources

The Federal Reserve Board creates the DFAs by combining data from the triennial Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and the quarterly Financial Accounts of the United States. See a paper by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for a discussion of how the estimates are constructed. Many of our reports, like the Demographics of Wealth series, use the SCF instead of the DFAs. The SCF is an extensive survey that allows us to examine median household wealth (wealth at the middle or 50th percentile), which we believe is more representative of a demographic group’s typical economic experience than is average wealth. However, the SCF is released only every three years, with the most recent survey featuring 2019 data.

While we prefer the depth of information provided by the SCF data, the DFAs allow us to study wealth trends in a more timely fashion, though with less flexibility than the SCF and an inability to examine median household wealth. Because specific DFA estimates change from quarter to quarter as data are updated, we advise placing more weight on trends than specific values. Overall, as average wealth trends roughly track median wealth trends, we find large wealth gaps and low levels of wealth among vulnerable groups using both the SCF and DFAs.

Last Update: July 11, 2022

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