Federal Reserve System and the Conference of State Bank Supervisors
Community Banking in the 21st Century
Sept. 23-24, 2014, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
Presenters, Speakers, Authors and Moderators (Download PDF)
Dean Amel is a senior economist in the Division of Research and Statistics of the Federal Reserve Board, where he has worked for 30 years. Among his regulatory responsibilities, Amel coordinates the competitive review of bank holding company and bank applications and helps to enforce the deposit and liability caps on financial institutions. In addition, Amel has numerous publications in academic journals and books covering many aspects of the banking industry. Amel has a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Bachelor of Arts in economics and mathematics from the University of Wisconsin.
William F. Bassett is a deputy associate director in the Division of Monetary Affairs with oversight responsibilities for the Banking Analysis section at the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. The section is responsible for producing high-quality economic research and analysis of bank profitability and balance sheet developments as they relate to the formulation of monetary policy and macroeconomic performance. He has been at the Board since 1999 serving in both the Division of Monetary Affairs and the Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation. He has a master’s degree and a doctorate in economics from Brown University and received a bachelor’s degree in economics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Lamont Black is an assistant professor of finance at DePaul University in Chicago. Prior to joining DePaul, Black was an economist at the Federal Reserve Board for eight years, where he worked in the Division of Research and Statistics and the Division of International Finance. His responsibilities at the Board included the evaluation of bank regulatory policies during the financial crisis and the monitoring of the European banking sector during the sovereign debt crisis. His current research focuses on commercial real estate securitization and the spillover of financial shocks through the banking system. His previous research has been published in several journals, including the Journal of Banking and Finance, the Journal of Financial Services Research and the Journal of Financial Stability. His teaching is in the areas of commercial banking and money markets. Black received a bachelor’s degree from Stanford University and a master’s degree in economics from Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. He received his doctorates in economics and in finance from the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University.
Richard A. Brown concurrently serves as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.’s (FDIC) chief economist and as associate director in the FDIC’s Division of Insurance and Research. As chief economist, he is responsible for developing and communicating the FDIC’s perspective on a wide range of economic and risk-management issues. Brown speaks often on the economy to bankers and trade groups and has been interviewed by the Wall Street Journal, Fortune, Business Week, CNBC and other media outlets. Prior to coming to the FDIC in 1990, Brown held research positions at the Resolution Trust Corp., the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corp. and the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. Brown completed a doctorate in economics at the George Washington University in 1994 and received a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Cincinnati in 1984.
James Bullard is president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, positions he has held since 2008. In these roles, he participates in the Federal Open Market Committee and directs the activities of the Federal Reserve’s Eighth District head office in St. Louis and branches in Little Rock, Ark., Louisville, Ky., and Memphis, Tenn. An economist and monetary policy scholar, Bullard has been with the Bank since 1990. His research has appeared in numerous professional journals, including the American Economic Review, the Journal of Monetary Economics, Macroeconomic Dynamics and the Journal of Money, Credit and Banking. He has been a peer reviewer for more than two dozen periodicals and institutions, and currently is co-editor of the Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. Beyond the Fed, Bullard is an honorary professor of economics at Washington University in St. Louis, where he also sits on the advisory council of the economics department and the advisory boards of the Center for Dynamic Economics and the Wells Fargo Advisors Center for Finance and Accounting Research. He is a member of the University of Missouri-St. Louis Chancellor’s Council, the United Way U.S.A. Board of Trustees and the Greater St. Louis Financial Forum. Bullard also serves on the board of the St. Louis Regional Chamber. Bullard received his doctorate in economics from Indiana University in Bloomington. He holds bachelor’s degrees in economics and in quantitative methods and information systems from St. Cloud State University in St. Cloud, Minn.
Ken B. Cyree is the dean and the Frank R. Day/Mississippi Bankers Association Chair of Banking at the University Of Mississippi School Of Business Administration, where he is also a professor of finance. Cyree received his doctorate and his Master of Business Administration from the University of Tennessee. He is the director of the Mississippi School of Banking and a faculty member at the Graduate School of Banking at Louisiana State University. Cyree’s research interests are in banking, financial markets, interest rates and regulation. He has papers published in the Journal of Business, Financial Management, the Journal of Banking and Finance, the Journal of Financial Research, the Journal of Financial Services Research, the Journal of Financial Markets, the Financial Review, along with several other academic journals. In addition, Cyree has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Business Research and is currently an associate editor at the Journal of Financial Research. He is past president of the Southern Finance Association and served on the nominating committee for the Eastern Finance Association. Cyree was named the University Of Mississippi School Of Business Administration’s “Outstanding Teacher of the Year” in 2007 and “Outstanding Senior Researcher” in 2014.
Candace A. Franks is the Arkansas State Bank Commissioner, overseeing the Arkansas State Bank Department. The bank department is the chartering and regulatory authority for state banks that have main offices in Arkansas. Franks is also serving a one-year term as chairman of the board of directors of the Conference of Bank Supervisors. From 1995 until her appointment as commissioner in 2007, Franks served as deputy bank commissioner and general counsel for the bank department. Previously, Franks served as general counsel to the bank department and represented the State Banking Board. In 2010, she was recognized by Arkansas Business as one of 20 "Women of Influence,” and as one of the "Top 100 Women in Arkansas” in 1996, 1997 and 1998. Franks received her Juris Doctor from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock in 1979 and her Bachelor of Arts in history and Master of Arts in American history from Arkansas State University at Jonesboro.
Esther L. George is president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City and a member of the Federal Open Market Committee, which sets U.S. monetary policy. She has more than 30 years of experience at the Kansas City Fed, primarily focused on regulatory oversight of 170 state-chartered banks and nearly 1,000 bank and financial holding companies in seven states. George was directly involved in the banking supervision and discount window lending activities during the banking crisis of the 1980s and post-9/11. During the most recent financial crisis, she served as the acting director of the Federal Reserve’s Division of Banking Supervision and Regulation in Washington, D.C. She is a native of Faucett, Mo.
Jacob Gramlich is an economist in the Division of Research and Statistics of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, where he has worked for two years. Among his regulatory responsibilities, Gramlich coordinates the competitive review of bank holding company and bank applications. His research is in the area of industrial organization, including that of the banking industry. Prior to joining the Board, Gramlich was an assistant professor of economics at Georgetown University and worked for two years in the private sector drafting antitrust expert testimony. He has a doctorate in economics from Yale University and a Bachelor of Arts in mathematics from the University of Virginia.
Zhaozhao He is a fourth-year doctoral student in finance at the University of Kansas School Of Business. Her current research interests include corporate cash management, financial intermediaries, innovation, and product market interactions. In 2014, she received a Western Finance Association Ph.D. Candidate Award for Outstanding Research. Her research has received the McGraw-Hill/Irwin Distinguished Paper Award and the Outstanding Doctoral Student Paper Award at the 2014 Southwestern Finance Association’s annual meeting. She graduated with honors from the Shanghai Institute of Foreign Trade and received a Master of Business Administration from the University of Central Arkansas.
J. Pat Hickman is chairman and CEO of Happy State Bank & Trust Company, domiciled in Happy, Texas (The Town Without a Frown). He has held these positions for the past 24 years and has led his bank from the 812th largest bank ($10 million total assets) in Texas in 1990 to the 25th largest bank (more than $2.5 billion total assets). The bank also owns GoldStar Trust Company, which does business in all 50 states and is the largest trustee in the nation for self-directed precious metal individual retirement accounts. A banker for 40 years, Hickman has served as a board member and chair of several community and banking organizations, including past chair of the Independent Bankers Association of Texas. He attended Texas Tech University and West Texas A&M University.
Julie Andersen Hill is an associate professor of law at the University of Alabama, where she teaches and writes about banking and commercial law. Her scholarship often focuses on the unwritten rules of financial institution regulatory enforcement. Before entering the legal academy, Hill practiced law in the Washington, D.C., office of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, & Flom LLP. As part of the litigation group, she represented large financial institutions under government investigation. Before practicing law, she worked at two small community banks. She received her Bachelor of Science in economics from Southern Utah University and her Juris Doctor from Brigham Young University.
Tanya D. Marsh is an associate professor of law at Wake Forest University School of Law in Winston-Salem, N.C., where she teaches property; real estate transactions; a seminar on the regulation of financial institutions; funeral and cemetery law; and professional development. Her scholarship addresses the regulation of community banks, commercial real estate, and the laws regarding the status, treatment and disposition of human remains. She is a graduate of Indiana University and Harvard Law School. Prior to joining the Wake Forest faculty in 2010, Marsh practiced commercial real estate and corporate law in Indianapolis for 10 years. She is a member of the American College of Real Estate Lawyers and is involved in the leadership of the American Bar Association Section of Real Property Trust and Estate Law.
Trey Maust is co-founder, co-president, CEO and board member of Lewis & Clark Bank in Oregon City, Ore. Maust began his career in Portland, Ore., where he conducted and managed financial statement audits, internal control assessments and Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Improvement Act attestation engagements. He later transferred to Deloitte’s Merger and Acquisition Services group in New York City, where he was a national resource for bank acquisitions and for conducting financial and operational due diligence on more than 40 transactions in a variety of industries for both financial sponsors and strategic buyers. Prior to his current position, Maust served as chief financial officer at two Portland-area community banks. He is heavily involved in state and national banking associations, and is also on multiple advisory and fiduciary boards of both for-profit and nonprofit organizations. Maust received a bachelor’s degree in business administration from Portland State University and is a licensed certified public accountant. In 2007, he was recognized as one of the “40 under 40” by the Portland Business Journal.
Andrew P. Meyer is a senior economist in the Supervisory Policy and Risk Analysis unit of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. He received a doctorate in economics from Washington University in St. Louis and has worked at the Federal Reserve since 1994. In addition to his research on community banking issues, he conducts statistical analysis of the downgrade and failure risk of commercial banks. He also serves on a system committee to improve the Federal Reserve’s off-site bank surveillance program and has taught regularly in examiner training schools.
Joshua Mitts is the Postdoctoral Fellow in Empirical Law and Economics at the Ira M. Millstein Center for Global Markets and Corporate Ownership at Columbia Law School. His research applies empirical methods to the study of contract and corporate law. Mitts has authored causal inference studies on the effect of legal interventions, applications of automated content analysis to legal research, and predictive analysis using large-scale textual data to guide regulatory policy. His scholarship has been published or is forthcoming in various journals including the Yale Law Journal, Cornell Law Review, Yale Journal on Regulation, Harvard Business Law Review, Delaware Journal of Corporate Law and the peer-reviewed Journal of Financial Regulation and has been presented at the annual meeting of the American Law & Economics Association and the Conference on Empirical Legal Studies.
Chuck Morris is vice president and economist in the Supervision and Risk Management Division at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. He has responsibility for the Banking Research function and the Surveillance and Risk Management function. He also supports Kansas City Fed senior management by preparing analyses, briefings and recommendations on regulatory and policy issues. His current research focuses on community banking issues, policy options for improving the stability of financial markets and how regulation affects financial company incentives. Morris has been with the Kansas City Fed since 1983. In 2012, he spent six months at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. serving as acting deputy to Vice Chairman Thomas Hoenig. He received his bachelor’s, master’s and doctorate degrees in economics from UCLA.
Hester Peirce is a senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University. Before joining Mercatus, Peirce served on Sen. Richard Shelby’s staff on the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs. She served at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as a staff attorney and as counsel to SEC Commissioner Paul S. Atkins. Before that, she clerked for Judge Roger B. Andewelt on the Court of Federal Claims and was an associate at a Washington, D.C.-based law firm. Peirce currently serves on the SEC’s Investor Advisory Committee. Peirce’s work has been published in such outlets as The Hill and American Banker, and she is a regular contributor to Real Clear Markets. She is the editor of, and contributor to, the book Dodd-Frank: What It Does and Why It’s Flawed, published by Mercatus in 2012. Peirce received her Bachelor of Arts in economics from Case Western Reserve University and her Juris Doctor from Yale Law School.
Jerome H. Powell took office as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on May 25, 2012, to fill an unexpired term. He was reappointed and sworn in on June 16, 2014, for a term ending Jan. 31, 2028. Prior to his appointment, Powell was a visiting scholar at the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D.C., where he focused on federal and state fiscal issues. From 1997 through 2005, Powell was a partner at The Carlyle Group. Powell served as an assistant secretary and as undersecretary of the Treasury under President George H.W. Bush, with responsibility for policy on financial institutions, the Treasury debt market and related areas. Prior to joining the administration, he worked as a lawyer and investment banker in New York City. He received an A.B. in politics from Princeton University in 1975 and earned a law degree from Georgetown University in 1979. While at Georgetown, he was editor-in-chief of the Georgetown Law Journal.
Rebeca Romero Rainey is the chairman and CEO of Centinel Bank in Taos, N.M. She is a graduate of Wellesley College and the Pacific Coast School of Banking. Upon graduating from Wellesley, she returned to Taos with the dream of continuing her family business of running the town’s only local community bank. In 1999, she was promoted to president and CEO of the bank and is the third generation of her family to run the bank. Centinel Bank has $190 million in assets and maintains the market share of deposits in the community. Romero Rainey is a past president of the Independent Bankers Association of New Mexico and is currently vice chairman of the Independent Community Bankers Association. From 2009 thru 2012, she served two terms on the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.’s Advisory Committee on Community Banking. In October 2011, she joined the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City’s Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council. She is actively involved in several local nonprofits. She currently is president and co-founder of the Bridges Project for Education, a nonprofit focused on helping first-generation college students, and is past president of the Northern New Mexico Birth Center. She is also on the board of the New Mexico Economic Partnership. In 2009, Romero Rainey was selected as “Taos Citizen of the Year,” and she has been awarded the New Mexico Governor’s Award for Outstanding Women.
John W. Ryan is the president and CEO of the Conference of State Bank Supervisors, the national association representing state banking supervisors and the leading advocate for advancing the state banking system. Before being named CSBS president and CEO in August 2011, Ryan was CSBS’s executive vice president, a position he had held since October 2003. He first joined CSBS in 1997 as an assistant vice president for legislative affairs. Prior to joining CSBS, Ryan worked at Newmyer Associates, a public affairs consulting firm, where he led the company’s financial services consulting practice. Previous to his work at Newmyer Associates, Ryan spent four years as a professional staff member to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs. Ryan received a bachelor’s degree in political science and economics from the University of California-Berkeley.
Heidi Mandanis Schooner is a professor of law at the Columbus School of Law at The Catholic University of America. She has also been a visiting professor at Suffolk University Law School and at the George Washington University Law School and has served as a consultant to the International Monetary Fund and to various federal and state agencies. Before joining the law faculty at The Catholic University in 1993, she was acting general counsel of First American Metro Corp., a bank holding company. She also practiced in the Securities and Exchange Commission’s Office of the General Counsel and as an associate with a private law firm. Schooner’s scholarship examines both the domestic and international challenges in regulating the financial services industry. She recently co-authored a textbook on international bank regulation, Global Bank Regulation: Principles and Policies, with Michael W. Taylor. She teaches courses in banking law, corporations, contracts and commercial law. Schooner received her bachelor's degree with honors from Duke University and her Juris Doctor from the Georgetown University Law Center.
Mark Schroeder is chairman and CEO of Jasper, Ind.-based German American Bancorp Inc., a $2.2 billion bank holding company. Schroeder, who has served as German American’s CEO since 1999, previously served in numerous senior management positions with the company, including tenures as its chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief lending officer. He also serves on the board of directors for German American Bancorp Inc. and its subsidiaries. Schroeder is firmly committed to the company’s vision of community banking and serves on various state and local banking organizations’ boards and committees, including the Indiana Department of Financial Institutions, the Independent Community Bankers of America and the Indiana Bankers Association. He serves as a member of the University of Evansville’s School of Business Advisory Board. Schroeder received a Bachelor of Science in Financial Management from the University of Evansville, and he is a graduate of the Stonier Graduate School of Banking. He is also a certified public accountant.
R.H. (Hank) Seale III is an industry veteran who began his career as a loan payments teller for The Bank of the Hills, working his way up to vice president of operations. During that time, he was secretary and treasurer of the Young Bankers Division of the Independent Bankers Association of Texas. Following the acquisition of The Bank of the Hills, Seale co-founded Dallas-based Regency Voice Systems, a company that introduced voice banking to community banks and evolved into a multimillion-dollar business with more than 1,600 community bank customers. When Regency was acquired by Transaction Systems Architects Inc. in 1997, Seale went on to start Q UP Systems, a provider of technology to more than 700 community banks. He was a nominee and finalist for Ernst and Young’s “Entrepreneur of the Year” award in 1999. Q UP became part of the S1 Corporation in 2000, and Seale served as the CEO of S1’s Community and Regional Solutions group until 2001. Passionate about the financial services industry, he spends time creating and refining his vision for providing industry-leading technology solutions, along with superior customer service, to the community bank and credit union marketplace. Seale is an active entrepreneur and investor in multiple companies. He is a graduate of Texas Tech University.
Joshua Siegel is managing partner and CEO of New York City-based StoneCastle Partners LLC, a national alternative asset manager with more than $8 billion in assets under management across eight funds for more than 1,000 institutional and high-net-worth clients. Founded by Siegel, StoneCastle has grown into one of the world’s largest and most successful investment firms focused on the banking industry, with more than 50 professionals operating from five locations. His research and financial innovations have brought nearly $40 billion of capital to more than 1,600 banks across the U.S. over the past 12 years. Siegel is widely regarded as a leading expert and investor in the community banking industry and speaks frequently at industry events, including those hosted by the American Bankers Association, Conference of State Bank Supervisors, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., the Federal Reserve and SNL Financial. A creative instructor with a passion for teaching, Siegel has regularly been invited to educate government regulators about the specialized community banking sector. He has also served as adjunct professor at the Columbia Business School in New York City. Prior to co-founding StoneCastle, Siegel was a co-founder and vice president of the Global Portfolio Solutions Group at Salomon Brothers/Citigroup Global Markets, a group organized to finance portfolios of financial assets for corporations and to invest in the sector as a principal. He later assumed responsibility for developing new products, including pooled investment strategies for the community banking sector. He originally joined Salomon Brothers/Citigroup in 1996 in the tax and lease division, providing structured financing to government-sponsored enterprises and Fortune 500 corporations. Prior to his tenure at Salomon Brothers/Citigroup, Joshua worked at Sumitomo Bank, where he served as a corporate lending officer, as a member of the New York Credit Committee and at the Charterhouse Group, where he carried out merchant banking and private equity transactions. Siegel received his Bachelor of Science in Management and Accounting from Tulane University.
Julie Stackhouse is senior vice president and managing officer of Banking Supervision, Credit, Community Development and Learning Innovation for the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Prior to joining the St. Louis Fed in September 2002, Stackhouse was vice president and managing officer of the Risk Management Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. In addition, she was formerly an officer with the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City prior to relocating to Minnesota in 1995. She served in many capacities in the Kansas City Banking Supervision and Risk Management areas, starting as an examiner in 1980. Stackhouse has a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from Drake University and is a graduate of the Wisconsin Graduate School of Banking. She currently serves on the national board of National Charity League Inc. and the board of the Open Door Animal Sanctuary. She is a member of the advisory committee for the Washington University Women’s Leadership Certificate Program and is a member of the St. Louis Forum.
Michael Stevens is the senior executive vice president at the Conference of State Bank Supervisors (CSBS). He is responsible for leading the organization’s public policy, financial supervision, federal coordination, communications, industry relations and professional development functions. Stevens also serves as the principal deputy to the state banking member of the Financial Stability Oversight Council. Prior to his appointment in September 2011, he served as the senior vice president for regulatory policy, representing the state banking system in the development of policy in the areas of financial stability, prudential supervision and consumer protection. He joined CSBS in 1999 to work in all facets of CSBS’s professional development division. Stevens is a frequent instructor and speaker on banking policy, examinations and financial analysis. He serves on the faculty of the Graduate School of Banking at Colorado and at Texas Tech University’s School of Banking. He began his regulatory career as a bank examiner for the Iowa Division of Banking, where he served 11 years.
David C. Williams is president and CEO of Upper Peninsula State Bank, headquartered in Escanaba, Mich. A native of Michigan's Upper Peninsula region, Williams is a 1983 graduate of Michigan Technological University and holds a Bachelor of Science in business management and finance. He began his career at Houghton National Bank in Houghton, Mich. His early mentor was Houghton’s president and CEO, Alexander Sample, whom Williams first met while doing a research paper on banking during college. To broaden and augment his banking experience, his early career included several years with Old Kent Bank in Grand Rapids, Mich., and with Republic Bank which had offices in Michigan and in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1995, he joined Hancock, Mich.-based D&N Bank and ran its Upper Peninsula region, which included 14 offices and approximately $450 million in deposits. He has served as president and CEO of Upper Peninsula State Bank for the past 15 years. His background is diverse in all areas of banking with an emphasis in lending and in particular, commercial and industrial credit relationships.
Arthur E. Wilmarth Jr. is a professor of law at the George Washington University Law School. Prior to joining GW Law School's faculty in 1986, he was a partner in the Washington, D.C., office of Jones Day. Wilmarth teaches courses in banking law, contracts, corporations and American constitutional history. From 2011 to 2014, he served as executive director of GW Law School’s Center for Law, Economics and Finance (C-LEAF), and he has been a member of C-LEAF’s executive board since the center was founded in 2009. In 2010, he was a consultant to the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, the body established by Congress to report on the causes of the financial crisis of 2007-09. Wilmarth is the author of more than 30 articles and book chapters in the fields of banking law and American constitutional history, and he is co-editor of a book on the financial crisis. In 2005, the American College of Consumer Financial Services Lawyers awarded him its prize for the best law review article published in the field of consumer financial services law during the previous year. Wilmarth is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Banking Regulation. He is also a member of the advisory board of the American Antitrust Institute. Wilmarth received his bachelor's degree from Yale University and his Juris Doctor from Harvard University.
Chiwon Yom is a senior economist in the Quantitative Analysis Section at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. She received her doctorate from the University of California at Irvine and her Bachelor of Science from the University of California at Berkeley. Her research interests include bank performance and risk measurement, early warning models, and relationship lending and credit availability. In addition to research, she has worked on deposit insurance pricing models, participated in the Basel Committee Research Task Force and reviewed credit risk, interest-rate risk and stress-testing models on bank examinations.
Timothy K. Zimmerman has served as president and CEO of Monroe, Penn.-based Standard Bank since 1992 and as a director since 1993. He has more than 30 years of experience in the financial services industry. Prior to joining Standard Bank, Zimmerman served at Landmark Savings Association, Pittsburgh (and its predecessors) from 1977 to 1992, including service as senior vice president and chief financial officer from 1985 to 1992. He is a certified public accountant and worked for KPMG Peat Marwick from 1973 to 1977. Zimmerman is very active in community organizations and volunteer boards of directors. He has served as a director and committee chairman and member of numerous not-for-profit organizations in the greater Pittsburgh area. He is a former member of the board of directors of the Pennsylvania Association of Community Bankers and is immediate past chairman of its Strategic Planning Committee. He is currently serving as secretary of the executive committee of Independent Community Bankers of America (ICBA) and as a member of ICBA’s Housing Policy Task Force, He is the executive committee liaison to ICBA’s Education Committee. He is currently chairman of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s Community Bank Advisory Council and is a member of the National Association of Home Builders Mortgage Roundtable. Zimmerman is immediate past liaison to ICBA’s Federal Home Loan Bank Task Force, as well as the task force’s former chairman.